ICT > Networking
|Hacking is unauthorised access to your computer or files and to your personal information, e.g. email and bank accounts.||Use a username and password. Don’t give these to anyone and don’t write them down.|
|Use a firewall. This is a combination of hardware and software that controls network traffic between a secure computer or network and the Internet.|
|Use WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) or WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) codes which prevent unauthorised connection to a wireless network.|
|Encrypt data. Encrypted data cannot be understood by someone without the encryption key. This prevents hackers understanding data on the ICT systems they access.|
|Use a transaction log to track use of the system. This can show hackers’ activities and help identify them.|
|Hacking is often by authorised users accessing ICT systems they should not. Restrict users’ file access rights to prevent this.|
|Spam is unsolicited email. There is so much spam that it can swamp legitimate email.||Use a spam filter to scan incoming email and remove unwanted email messages.|
|A virus is malicious software installed on a computer without the user’s consent. Viruses can be attached to emails and downloaded with software.||Use antivirus software which checks for viruses and removes them, e.g. McAfee VirusScan. Treat files from unknown sources with caution.|
|Phishing is an attempt to find out personal information in order to carry out identity theft and fraud, e.g. you receive an email asking you to access your online bank by clicking on a hyperlink in the email. However, the link takes you to a fraudulent website where you enter your username and password. These are stolen and used to take money from your bank account.||Look for spelling and grammar errors, which are unlikely in an email from a bank.
Suspect a phishing attack when you receive an email claiming to be from a bank, as they do not usually send unsolicited emails.
Check that you have an account with the bank.
If you are worried your bank is really trying to contact you, break the connection with the email then contact the bank directly.
Remember that you are unlikely to win a competition you haven’t entered!
|Pharming is an attempt to collect personal information when users connect to legitimate websites. Spyware installed on a user’s computer logs their personal information as they enter it.||Detect and destroy spyware using antivirus software and specialised programs, e.g. Spybot Search & Destroy.|
|Adware is unsolicited advertising which often generates pop-up adverts.||Block adware and pop-ups in a browser or using antivirus software and specialised programs, e.g. Spybot Search & Destroy.|
|Access to inappropriate information, e.g. children accessing pornography.||Use parental control (or filter) software to restrict children’s access to inappropriate information, e.g. CYBERsitter. Features are:
Access to some web addresses, searches on some keywords and sending some personal information are blocked.
The URLs visited are recorded.
Parents are notified by email that blocking is occurring.
Parents are able to change filter settings over the Internet.
|Cookies are saved on your hard disk by websites and contain personal information that can be accessed by the website.||Use a cookie manager to block cookies or remove them using a browser.|